Reamers and endodontic files are surgical instruments used by dentists when performing root canal treatment. They are particularly used to clean and shape the root canal, with the concept being to perform complete chemomechanical debridement of the root canal to the length of the apical foramen.Files are usually made from metal, stainless steel or nickel titanium alloy. Files may be made from metal blanks that are twisted or machined to produce various sizes and tapers. Typical file lengths are 21mm, 25mm, 31mm. An ISO sizing system is used to describe the tip size of endodontic files.Fracture of an endodontic file may be caused by the endodontic treatment to have a lower success rate. Fragments of files may be removed using a retrieval system, but this is very technically demanding, and many fragments are left in-situ without problems. Files are usually colour-coded in an ISO colour system to aid the dentist. Typically steel files have 2% tapers, but in recent years Ni-Ti files with up to 12% tapers have been popularized.

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